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This post is part of our online roundtable on Black Women and the Politics of Respectability. Since the day she refused to give up her seat on a bus to a White man inRosa Parks has been an icon of the post-war Civil Rights Movement. The famous photograph showing her seated on a bus has been enthusiastically referenced by liberals, conservatives, and corporations alike as representing a kind of dissent to which everyone seems to curiously consent. In the context of the Civil Rights Movement of the early Cold War era, the politics of respectability had both vital strategic value and detrimental effects on the imagined scope of social change. For instance, it helped build sorely needed coalitions among African Americans and many Blacks hoped that respectability would help protect them against the violent de-humanization of racism, whose sheer brutality had been exposed once again in the summer of by the cruel murder of Emmett Till.
Years: I'm 27 years old
I prefer to drink: I like whisky
I prefer to listen: Heavy metal
Other hobbies: Yoga
According to a Montgomery city ordinance inAfrican Americans were required to sit at the back of public buses and were also obligated to give up those seats to white riders if the front of the bus filled up. Parks was in the first row of the Black section when the white driver demanded that she give up her seat to a white man.
Word was spread by fliers, and activists formed the Montgomery Improvement Association to organize the protest.
The first day of the bus boycott was a great success, and that night the year-old Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. At one point, his home was bombedbut he and his family escaped bodily harm. The boycott stretched on for more than a year, and participants carpooled or walked miles to work and school when no other means were possible. As African Americans ly constituted 70 percent of the Montgomery bus ridership, the municipal transit system suffered gravely during the boycott.
On November 13,the U. Supreme Court struck down Alabama state and Montgomery city bus segregation laws as being in violation of the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment to the U. Rosa Parks was among the first to ride the newly desegregated buses. There would be many more to come.
Rosa parks and the image of respectability
Rosa Parks died on October 24, Three days later the U. Senate passed a resolution to honor Parks by allowing her body to lie in honor in the U. Capitol Rotunda. Sergei Kirov, a leader of the Russian Revolution and a high-ranking member of the Politburo, is shot to death at his Leningrad office by Communist Party member Leonid Nikolayev, likely at the instigation of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin.
As no presidential candidate had received a majority of the total electoral votes in the election ofCongress decides to turn over the presidential election to the House of Representatives, as dictated by the 12th Amendment to the U. In the November Shortly after 11 a. This was no ordinary hole—it connected the two ends of an underwater tunnel linking Great Britain with the European mainland for the A fire at a grade school in Chicago kills 90 students on December 1, Inthere were well over 1, students enrolled at the school, which occupied a large, old building.
Twelve nations, including the United States and the Soviet Union, the Antarctica Treaty, which bans military activity and weapons testing on that continent. It was the first arms control agreement ed in the Cold War period.
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Rosa parks ignites bus boycott
Congress and speaks some of his most memorable words as he discusses the Northern war effort. Lincoln used the address to present a moderate message concerning his policy towards slavery. Just ten weeks before, he On December 1,Henry Ford installs the first moving assembly line for the mass production of an entire automobile. His innovation reduced the time it took to build a car from more than 12 hours to one hour and 33 minutes.
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