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Museo Nacional del Prado.
A tale of two women paintersan exhibition which for the first time brings together the key works by two of the most notable women Fontana of the second half of the 16 th century. Featuring a total of 65 works, including 56 paintings, loaned from more than 20 European and American collections, the Museo del Prado is presenting a survey of the careers of these two painters, who achieved fame and white among their contemporaries but whose artistic personalities became obscured over time. Room C. Sofonisba Anguissola and Lavinia Fontana trained in Cremona and Bologna respectively; two geographically close artistic centres but ones characterised by their particular artistic, social and cultural traditions.
They came from different types of families and had different lives although in both cases the role of their fathers had a fundamental influence on their careers. Both were able to overcome the stereotypes that society ased to women in relation to artistic practice and the deep-rooted scepticism regarding their creative and artistic powers. As a result, they made use of painting to achieve a ificant position in the society in which they lived. One of six daughters, Sofonisba Anguissola was born into a family of the minor nobility in Cremona.
Painting offered her the chance to achieve a social position appropriate to her family, the Anguissola-Ponzonis. Most noted for her portraiture, Anguissola was also summoned to serve as a lady-in-waiting to Isabel de Valois, a role that effectively concealed her true activities. For Fontana, the daughter of a painter of some prestige, painting was a natural environment which, with the encouragement of her father, offered her a career.
She was the first woman painter to be acknowledged as a professional and an artist who transcended the limits girl pictorial genres imposed on women. Her black, wide-ranging oeuvre includes numerous portraits and religious works for churches and private oratories and she also painted dating compositions, a genre in which the nude was an important element.
Sofonisba Boy Cremona, ca.
Both dismantled the social stereotypes ased to women with regard to artistic practice, characterised by scepticism regarding their capabilities. Anguissola came from a large family of noble origins. Her father, Amilcare Anguissola ca.
Sofonisba primarily focused on portraiture and achieved a level of fame which, thanks to her aristocratic origins and her reputation as a virtuous woman, facilitated her arrival at the Spanish court where she became a lady-in-waiting to Queen Isabel de Valois. This position prevailed over her role as a painter but made her a reference point for other female artists. She was the daughter of Prospero Fontanaa prestigious Bolognese painter with whom she trained and worked. Lavinia Fontana was the first woman to open her own studio where she embarked on a notably active career that would extend to Florence and Rome, before moving to the latter city towards the end of her life.
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Between the ages of 11 and 13, Sofonisba Anguissola undertook her initial artistic training which followed the educational guidelines established for the aristocracy. She thus received classes in music, dance, literature, drawing and painting, taught for the latter two by the painters Bernardino Campi and Bernardino Gatti ca. Anguissola proved outstanding in drawing and above all as a portraitist, practising constantly with her own face and by depicting family members. Her very thorough training is evident in her numerous self-portraits more than any other woman had produced up to that date which reflect feminine ideals of the time: discretion, modesty and prudence.
Anguissola produced small, bust-length or half-length images that functioned to disseminate her image and her virtues. Prior to her arrival in Spain, Sofonisba Anguissola had painted portraits of various celebrated individuals of the day which demonstrate her early fame and her gifts in a genre in which Venetian and Lombard influences are clearly evident.
With the exception of the portrait of the young Massimiliano Stampa, whose image publicly declares his new status as Marquis of Soncino and which reveals the influence on Anguissola of Giovanni Battista Moroni ca. Lavinia Fontana opted for this same typology twenty years later in order to portray artists, lawyers, doctors, humanists and clerics. Seated before a desk and shown engaged in intellectual activity reinforced by the rhetorical gesture of their hands and their lively gazesthe subjects depicted by the two artists reflect a concept fundamental to this period: their auctoritasmeaning the moral and civic prestige attributable to them through their knowledge and dedication.
During the years that she spent at the Spanish court Sofonisba Anguissola occupied the role of teacher of drawing and painting to Isabel de Valois while also executing portraits of almost all the members of the royal family.
None of the portraits that she produced in Spain are ed. The portraits now attributed to her reveal the way in which she adapted her art to the conventions of the Spanish court portrait. In Bologna and subsequently in Rome, Lavinia Fontana primarily devoted her activities to portraiture, a genre in which she was notable for the variety of typologies she employed. Fontana was undoubtedly the preferred choice of female sitters, whose pretensions to sophistication and luxury are extremely well reflected in her works. Above all, she revealed all her skills in visually expressing the opulence of the clothing, the different textiles, wealth of jewels and exquisite lace, as well as the almost obligatory lapdog.
They are shown alongside their father or mother or as part of a family group. These are small-format works intended for private devotional spaces and their compositions are always inspired by the work of other artists. During her formative years in Cremona, Fontana was influenced by the work of her masters Bernardino Campi and Bernardino Gatti and by that of Camillo Boccaccino ca.
These small scenes are notable for their tender, pleasing sensibility and a style close to Correggio ca. Lavinia Fontana produced an extremely professional body of religious work ranging from small-scale devotional paintings on different supports copperplate, panel and canvas to large canvases intended as altar paintings. These are works marked by the spirit of the Counter-Reformation which reveal the influence of Correggio, Denys Calvaert ca.
Lavinia Fontana was the first female artist to paint mythological compositions. Works of this type required her not only to make use of her powers of invention but also to focus on the depiction of the nude, a subject banned to women.
This collecting mode extended to Rome where patrons associated with the Papacy commissioned works of this type from Fontana. The final section in the exhibition includes various works that demonstrate the fame achieved by the two painters. Eulogistic biographical s of these two illustrious women became a flourishing literary genre from the 16 th century onwards. It includes an extensive of Sofonisba Anguissola and shorter ones of Lavinia Fontana and other female artists of the period.
A further proof of the level of fame achieved by Anguissola is the visit that she received from Anthony van Dyck in Palermo a few months before her death.
A in his travel journal and his portrait of the elderly artist recall their moving meeting. Fontana also inspired laudatory texts and works and the exhibition includes one of the most eloquent: a medal struck in Rome in with her effigy associated with the practice of painting on one side and an allegory of Painting on the other. Bachofen-Burckhardt Sofonisba Anguissola Oil on canvas c. Sofonisba Anguissola Black chalk on yellowish paper mounted on canvas c. Sofonisba Anguissola Oil on parchment c. Munroe Fund. Lavinia Fontana Grease pencil, heightened with tempera and lead white on paper Rome, Galleria Borghese.
Attributed to Sofonisba Anguissola Oil on canvas c. Attributed to Sofonisba Anguissola Oil on panel c. Court workshop Rich embroidery embellished with silver, with cannetille, spangles, and metal-wrapped thread on a silk satin ground Early 17th century Illescas Toledo. Lavinia Fontana Oil on canvas c. Patrimonio Nacional. Kress Collection.
A tale of two women painters: sofonisba anguissola and lavinia fontana
Government and transferred to The National Trust in The aim of this project presented by the Museo del Prado to coincide with its Bicentenary year is the study of the artistic personalities of Sofonisba Anguissola ca. This publication offers a new assessment of two women painters whose artistic personalities became obscured over time but who have recently been the subject of renewed interest on the part of researchers and the general public. American Friends was founded with the aim of strengthening cultural ties between the United States and Spain through the Museo Nacional del Prado and its collections.
Now you can add in works from the Collection browser. Exhibitions Video Interactives Audio News. Buy tickets. Access Room C. Hazte Amigo. In collaboration with:. Sofonisba Anguissola at the court of Philip II During the years that she spent at the Spanish court Sofonisba Anguissola occupied the role of teacher of drawing and painting to Isabel de Valois while also executing portraits of almost all the members of the royal family.
Legacy The final section in the exhibition includes various works that demonstrate the fame achieved by the two painters. Print on demand Print artworks available in our catalogue in high quality and your preferred size and finish. Image archive Request artworks available in our catalogue in digital format.